Crystals and crystalloids in cytopathology: Incidence and importance

Cancer Cytopathol. 2022 Oct;130(10):759-770. doi: 10.1002/cncy.22602. Epub 2022 Jun 6.


Many crystals and crystal-like structures may be encountered in cytopathology practice and can represent both beautiful novelties and diagnostic aids. The authors present an organ-specific review of the published literature on crystals combined with personal experiences. The purpose is not only to serve as a reference guide by highlighting the clinical and morphologic features of crystals, crystalloids, and crystal-like structures but also to review their significance and to offer reporting strategies in cases that bear management implications.

Keywords: Crystalloids; Crystals; Cytology; Cytopathology; Joint fluid; Salivary gland; Thyroid; Urine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Crystalloid Solutions
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Salivary Gland Neoplasms* / pathology


  • Crystalloid Solutions