The role of Tumour Necrosis Factor in neuroinflammation associated with Parkinson's disease and targeted therapies

Neurochem Int. 2022 Sep;158:105376. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2022.105376. Epub 2022 Jun 3.


Neurodegenerative disorders Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with neuroinflammatory responses that lead to the neurodegeneration of the dopaminergic neurons. These neuroinflammatory mechanisms involve various cytokines produced by the activated glial cells. Tumour Necrosis factor α (TNF α) is one of the major mediators of the neuroinflammation associated with neurodegeneration. TNF α has a dual role of neuroprotection and neurotoxicity in the brain. The effective pathways of TNF involve various signalling pathways transduced by the receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2. Effective therapeutic strategies have been produced targeting the neurotoxic behaviour of the Tumour Necrosis Factor and the associated neurodegeneration which includes the use of Dominant Negative Tumour Necrosis Factor (DN-TNF) inhibitors like XENP 345 and XPro®1595 and peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists.

Keywords: Inflammation; Microglia; Neurodegeneration; Neuroinflammation; Parkinson's disease; TNF-α; TNF-α inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dopaminergic Neurons
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Microglia / metabolism
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / complications
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / metabolism
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases
  • Parkinson Disease* / complications
  • Parkinson Disease* / metabolism
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha* / metabolism


  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha