Mechanical Ventilation and Respiratory Support in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

Pediatr Clin North Am. 2022 Jun;69(3):587-605. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2022.02.004.


Children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit often require respiratory support for the treatment of respiratory distress and failure. Respiratory support comprises both noninvasive modalities (ie, heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula, continuous positive airway pressure, bilevel positive airway pressure, negative pressure ventilation) and invasive mechanical ventilation. In this article, we review the various essential elements and considerations involved in the planning and application of respiratory support in the treatment of the critically ill children.

Keywords: Bi-level positive airway pressure; Children; Continuous positive airway pressure; High-flow nasal cannula; Mechanical ventilation; Negative pressure ventilation; Noninvasive ventilation; Pediatric intensive care.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cannula
  • Child
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
  • Noninvasive Ventilation*
  • Respiration, Artificial
  • Respiratory Insufficiency* / therapy