Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes and monocytes and the status of cytokines in the clinical course of Covid-19 patients

J Med Virol. 2022 Oct;94(10):4744-4753. doi: 10.1002/jmv.27917. Epub 2022 Jun 13.


Lymphopenia, T cell subgroup changes, and cytokine level differences are important in the early diagnosis and treatment of Covid-19 cases and similar pandemics. We aimed to investigate the T cell, monocyte subgroups, and cytokine differences according to disease severity. A total of 46 volunteers were included in the study. According to disease status, there were three groups (control, mild, and severe). The age, gender, smoking status, temperature, heart rate and oxygen saturation, complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP) was noted, and flow cytometric analyses were performed for T cell and monocyte subgroups, and cytokine levels. Temperature, heart rate, SPO2 , white blood cell (WBC), lympocyte count, trombocyte count, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer and CRP levels, lymphocyte %, lymphocyte/monocyte rate, monocyte subtypes (%), CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ cell counts, interleukin (IL)-1β, TNF-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, IL-23 were significantly different between groups. CRP, IL-8, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, NK cells (%) have positive correlation and negative correlation was observed at lymphocyte (count), lymphocyte (%), lymphocyte/monocyte, classical monocyte (%), lymphocyte (count), CD3+ (count), CD4+ (count). As conclusion, lymphocyte (%), Lymphocyte (count), CRP levels, CD3+ and CD4+ cell counts strongly correlate with disease severity are valuable parameters for determining the prognoses of Covid-19.

Keywords: cell-mediated immunity; cytokines; lymphocyte; monocyte.

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / diagnosis
  • Cytokines
  • Humans
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Interleukin-8
  • Lymphocyte Count
  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets


  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-8