Etiology of halitosis in pediatric dentistry

Arch Pediatr. 2022 Aug;29(6):467-474. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2022.05.009. Epub 2022 Jun 3.


Halitosis has become a major concern, as it is the third most common reason for dental visits and affects individuals across all ages, genders, and ethnicities. Only a few limited studies have explored the prevalence and etiology of halitosis in the pediatric population. Therefore, the aim of this review was to identify the etiological factors influencing the widespread occurrence of halitosis in pediatric dentistry in order to guide therapy based on the identified causes, thereby improving children's quality of life. The etiology of halitosis is multifactorial; however, in most cases, halitosis is associated with the oral cavity. It can also be related to otorhinolaryngological and respiratory or even gastric diseases. Although halitosis in children is widely associated with poor oral hygiene, we cannot rule out other possible causes, such as otorhinolaryngological and respiratory causes.

Keywords: Children; Etiology; Halitosis; Pediatric dentistry.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Female
  • Halitosis* / diagnosis
  • Halitosis* / etiology
  • Halitosis* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mouth
  • Pediatric Dentistry
  • Prevalence
  • Quality of Life