Choosing Wisely in Adult Hospital Medicine: Co-creation of New Recommendations for Improved Healthcare Value by Clinicians and Patient Advocates

J Gen Intern Med. 2022 Aug;37(10):2454-2461. doi: 10.1007/s11606-021-07269-4. Epub 2022 Jun 6.


Background: The American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation's Choosing Wisely campaign has resulted in a vast number of recommendations to reduce low-value care. Implementation of these recommendations, in conjunction with patient input, remains challenging.

Objective: To create updated Society of Hospital Medicine Adult Hospitalist Choosing Wisely recommendations that incorporate patient input from inception.

Design and participants: This was a multi-phase study conducted by the Society of Hospital Medicine's High Value Care Committee from July 2017 to January 2020 involving clinicians and patient advocates.

Approach: Phase 1 involved gathering low-value care recommendations from patients and clinicians across the USA. Recommendations were reviewed by the committee in phase 2. Phase 3 involved a modified Delphi scoring in which 7 committee members and 7 patient advocates voted on recommendations based on strength of evidence, potential for patient harm, and relevance to either hospital medicine or patients. A patient-friendly script was developed to allow advocates to better understand the clinical recommendations.

Key results: A total of 1265 recommendations were submitted by clinicians and patients. After accounting for similar suggestions, 283 recommendations were categorized. Recommendations with more than 10 mentions were advanced to phase 3, leaving 22 recommendations for the committee and patient advocates to vote upon. Utilizing a 1-5 Likert scale, the top combined recommendations were reducing use of opioids (4.57), improving sleep (4.52), minimizing overuse of oxygen (4.52), reducing CK-MB use (4.50), appropriate venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (4.43), and decreasing daily chest x-rays (4.43).

Conclusions: Specific voting categories, along with the use of patient-friendly language, allowed for the successful co-creation of recommendations.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Hospital Medicine*
  • Hospitalists*
  • Humans
  • Internal Medicine
  • Patient Advocacy
  • United States