Integrating augmented reality in language learning: pre-service teachers' digital competence and attitudes through the TPACK framework

Educ Inf Technol (Dordr). 2022;27(9):12123-12146. doi: 10.1007/s10639-022-11123-3. Epub 2022 May 27.


Although the use of Augmented Reality (AR) in language learning has increased over the last two decades, there is still little research on the preparation of pre-service teachers as AR content creators. This paper focuses on analyzing the digital competence and attitudes of teacher candidates to integrate AR in the foreign language classroom. For this purpose, eighty-five college students were assigned into different teams to create their own AR-based projects which aimed at teaching English and content to young learners. The teacher candidates employed several software development kits (SDKs) to construct collaborative AR projects in a five-week period, including discursive and illustrative representations of the learning content. In this research based on a mixed method, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered trough AR project presentations and surveys encompassing two validated scales, the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework and the Augmented Reality Applications Attitudes Scale (ARAAS). The statistical data and qualitative findings revealed that the participants lacked practical knowledge on AR content creation and implementation in Education. The major problems were related to the TPK (Technological Pedagogical Knowledge) intersection since participants had been previously trained in AR technology just as recipients and not as content creators and educators.

Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10639-022-11123-3.

Keywords: Attitudes; Augmented reality (AR); Digital competence; Language learning; Pre-service teachers.