Factors related to barriers and medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2022 Jan 29;21(1):219-228. doi: 10.1007/s40200-021-00961-6. eCollection 2022 Jun.


Purpose: Evidence has shown that 50% of patients, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), are non-adherent to the prescribed antidiabetic medication regimen. Some barriers lead to nonadherence in people with DM type 2. The study aimed to identify factors related to adherence in patient with DM and to assess the correlation between barriers to adherence type 2 DM patients.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 primary healthcare centers in Surabaya, Indonesia. Patients with DM type 2 were recruited between April and September 2019 using convenient sampling technique. Ethics approval was obtained (80/EA/KEPK/2019).

Results: A total of 266 patients with type 2 DM participated in this study. Of the respondents, 201 (75.2%) were female. Unwanted drug effects, changes in medication regimens, and refilling the prescription when the drugs run out were most reported factors that affected adherence. Spearman correlations and linear regression tests were used to examine the relationship between barriers to medication adherence, and education with medication adherence. A significant difference was observed between the level of education and adherence (p = 0.031). The results showed an association between barriers to medication and adherence to medication (r = 0.304; p < 0.001) which was confirmed in regression analysis (R = 0.309, R square = 0.095, p <0.001).

Conclusions: Barriers to adherence are common and affect adherence to therapy. It is essential to expand the roles of health care professionals in the community to include counseling, barrier-monitoring, education, and problem-solving to improve patient medication adherence.

Keywords: Chronic illness; Diabetes mellitus; Drug adherence; Patient compliance; Primary care.