Purpose of review: An intact DNA damage response is crucial to preventing cancer development, including in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. Deficiencies in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway can lead to defective DNA damage responses, and this can occur through inherited germline mutations in HR pathway genes, such as CHEK2 and ATM. We now understand that germline mutations can be identified frequently (~ 5-10%) in patients with myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, and among the most common of these are CHEK2 and ATM. We review the role that deleterious germline CHEK2 and ATM variants play in the development of hematopoietic malignancies, and how this influences clinical practice, including cancer screening, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and therapy choice.
Recent findings: In recent large cohorts of patients diagnosed with myeloid or lymphoid malignancies, deleterious germline loss of function variants in CHEK2 and ATM are among the most common identified. Germline CHEK2 variants predispose to a range of myeloid malignancies, most prominently myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes (odds ratio range: 2.1-12.3), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (odds ratio 14.83). Deleterious germline ATM variants have been shown to predispose to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (odds ratio range: 1.7-10.1), although additional studies are needed to demonstrate the risk they confer for myeloid malignancies. Early studies suggest there may also be associations between deleterious germline CHEK2 and ATM variants and development of clonal hematopoiesis. Identifying CHEK2 and ATM variants is crucial for the optimal management of patients and families affected by hematopoietic malignancies. OPENING CLINICAL CASE: "A 45 year-old woman presents to your clinic with a history of triple-negative breast cancer diagnosed five years ago, treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. About six months ago, she developed cervical lymphadenopathy, and a biopsy demonstrated small lymphocytic leukemia. Peripheral blood shows a small population of lymphocytes with a chronic lymphocytic leukemia immunophenotype, and FISH demonstrates a complex karyotype: gain of one to two copies of IGH and FGFR3; gain of two copies of CDKN2C at 1p32.3; gain of two copies of CKS1B at 1q21; tetrasomy for chromosome 3; trisomy and tetrasomy for chromosome 7; tetrasomy for chromosome 9; tetrasomy for chromosome 12; gain of one to two copies of ATM at 11q22.3; deletion of chromosome 13 deletion positive; gain of one to two copies of TP53 at 17p13.1). Given her history of two cancers, you arrange for germline genetic testing using DNA from cultured skin fibroblasts, which demonstrates pathogenic variants in ATM [c.1898 + 2 T > G] and CHEK2 [p.T367Metfs]. Her family history is significant for multiple cancers. (Fig. 1)." Fig. 1 Representative pedigree from a patient with germline pathogenic ATM and CHEK2 variants who was affected by early onset breast cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Arrow indicates proband. Colors indicate cancer type/disease: purple, breast cancer; blue, lymphoma; brown, melanoma; yellow, colon cancer; and green, autoimmune disease.
Keywords: ATM; CHEK2; Double-strand breaks; Hematologic malignancy; Homologous repair; Myeloid malignancy.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.