Autonomic functions, tinnitus annoyance and loudness, and quality of life: Randomized-controlled responses to bee-humming (vibrational) respiratory training in tinnitus elderly

Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2022 Aug:48:101611. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2022.101611. Epub 2022 Jun 3.


Background: In chronic subjective tinnitus (CST) studies, the effect of bee-humming respiratory training (BHRT), a type of pranayama breathing technique, on autonomic cardiovascular/respiratory physiological functions (systolic pressure, rates of breathing and pulse, and diastolic pressure), tinnitus annoyance (TA), tinnitus loudness (TL), and quality of life measures as tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) did not receive significant attention.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of BHRT on TL, THI, TA, and cardiovascular/respiratory autonomic functions in bilateral CST elderly (aged ≥65 years old).

The design, setting, participants, and intervention: The current study employs a prospective, single-blind design; it is a randomized-controlled for-tinnitus behavioral intervention. Forty-six CST elderly subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the BHRT group (23 patients) or the control group (23 patients). The 4-week BHRT intervention was applied 30 min daily.

Outcome measures: TL, THI, TA, and cardiovascular/respiratory autonomic functions were evaluated.

Results: Significant BHRT-induced reductions of all measures were detected in the BHRT group, whereas no significant changes were observed in the controlled elderly group.

Conclusion: The complementary choice for BHRT is considered an effective method to improve TL, TA, THI, and cardiovascular/respiratory autonomic functions in CST elderly.

Keywords: Bee humming; Breathing exercise; Elderly; Pranayama; Quality of life; Tinnitus.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Bees
  • Humans
  • Physical Therapy Modalities
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quality of Life
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Tinnitus* / therapy
  • Treatment Outcome