Effects of Estrogens on Osteoimmunology: A Role in Bone Metastasis

Front Immunol. 2022 May 23:13:899104. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.899104. eCollection 2022.


Bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency indicates a fundamental role of these hormones in skeletal growth and bone remodeling. In the last decades, growing recent evidence demonstrated that estrogens can also affect the immune compartment of the bone. In this review, we summarize the impacts of estrogens on bone immune cells and their consequences on bone homeostasis, metastasis settlement into the bone and tumor progression. We also addressed the role of an orphan nuclear receptor ERRalpha ("Estrogen-receptor Related Receptor alpha") on macrophages and T lymphocytes, and as an immunomodulator in bone metastases. Hence, this review links estrogens to bone immune cells in osteo-oncology.

Keywords: bone marrow; bone metastasis; estrogen; estrogen receptor; immune cells.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bone Neoplasms*
  • Bone Remodeling
  • Bone and Bones
  • Estrogens*
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors


  • Estrogens
  • Immunologic Factors