Background & aims: Novel, effective treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection are needed. This study evaluated the efficacy of vonoprazan, a potassium-competitive acid blocker, vs standard treatment on H pylori eradication in the United States and Europe.
Methods: In a randomized, controlled, phase 3 trial, treatment-naïve adults with H pylori infection were randomized 1:1:1 to open-label vonoprazan dual therapy (20 mg vonoprazan twice daily; 1 g amoxicillin 3 times daily), or double-blind triple therapy twice a day (vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg; amoxicillin 1 g; clarithromycin 500 mg) for 14 days. The primary outcome was noninferiority in eradication rates in patients without clarithromycin- and amoxicillin-resistant strains (noninferiority margin = 10%). Secondary outcomes assessed superiority in eradication rates in clarithromycin-resistant infections, and in all patients.
Results: A total of 1046 patients were randomized. Primary outcome eradication rates (nonresistant strains): vonoprazan triple therapy 84.7%, dual therapy 78.5%, vs lansoprazole triple therapy 78.8% (both noninferior; difference 5.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.8 to 12.6; P < .001; difference -0.3%; 95% CI, -7.4 to 6.8; P = .007, respectively). Eradication rates in clarithromycin-resistant infections: vonoprazan triple therapy 65.8%, dual therapy 69.6%, vs lansoprazole triple therapy 31.9% (both superior; difference 33.9%; 95% CI, 17.7-48.1; P < .001; difference 37.7%; 95% CI, 20.5-52.6; P < .001, respectively). In all patients, vonoprazan triple and dual therapy were superior to lansoprazole triple therapy (80.8% and 77.2%, respectively, vs 68.5%, difference 12.3%; 95% CI, 5.7-18.8; P < .001; difference 8.7%; 95% CI, 1.9-15.4; P = .013). Overall frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between vonoprazan and lansoprazole regimens (P > .05).
Conclusion: Both vonoprazan-based regimens were superior to proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy in clarithromycin-resistant strains and in the overall study population.
Clinicaltrials: gov; NCT04167670.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance; Helicobacter pylori; PPI; Vonoprazan.
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