Organ-on-a-chip (OOAC) is an emerging technology based on microfluid platforms and in vitro cell culture that has a promising future in the healthcare industry. The numerous advantages of OOAC over conventional systems make it highly popular. The chip is an innovative combination of novel technologies, including lab-on-a-chip, microfluidics, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. This paper begins by analyzing the need for the development of OOAC followed by a brief introduction to the technology. Later sections discuss and review the various types of OOACs and the fabrication materials used. The implementation of artificial intelligence in the system makes it more advanced, thereby helping to provide a more accurate diagnosis as well as convenient data management. We introduce selected OOAC projects, including applications to organ/disease modelling, pharmacology, personalized medicine, and dentistry. Finally, we point out certain challenges that need to be surmounted in order to further develop and upgrade the current systems.
Keywords: heart; kidney; liver; lung; organ-on-a-chip; technology.