Effect of Different Maxillary Oral Appliance Designs on Respiratory Variables during Sleep

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 May 31;19(11):6714. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19116714.

Abstract

This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of maxillary oral appliance (MOA) designs on respiratory variables during sleep. At baseline, 23 participants underwent a sleep test with a portable device for two nights and were categorized as participants with mild obstructive sleep apnea (mild-OSA) (n = 13) and without OSA (w/o-OSA) (n = 10). Three types of MOAs, standard-OA (S-OA), palatal covering-OA (PC-OA), and vertically increasing-OA (VI-OA), were each worn for three nights, and sleep tests with each MOA were performed with a portable device for two nights. Based on the average of the respiratory event index (REI) values for the two nights for each MOA, w/o-OSA participants with an REI ≥ 5.0 were defined as the exacerbation group and those with an REI < 5.0 as the non-exacerbation group. In mild-OSA participants, an REI ≥ 15.0 or REI ≥ baseline REI × 1.5 were defined as the exacerbation group and those with an REI < 15.0 and REI < baseline REI × 1.5 were defined as the non-exacerbation group. The percentage of the exacerbation and non-exacerbation groups with MOA was evaluated in the w/o-OSA and mild-OSA participants. The maxillary and mandibular dental-arch dimension was compared by dentition model analysis. The exacerbation group in w/o-OSA participants (n = 10) comprised 10.0% participants (n = 1) with S-OA, 40.0% (n = 4) with PC-OA, and 30.0% (n = 3) with VI-OA. The exacerbation group in the mild-OSA participants (n = 13) comprised 15.4% subjects (n = 2) with S-OA, 23.1% (n = 3) with PC-OA, and 23.1% (n = 3) in VI-OA. In the model analysis for w/o-OSA, the posterior dental arch width was significantly greater in the exacerbation group than in the non-exacerbation group wearing S-OA (p < 0.05). In addition, the ratio of the maxillary to mandibular dental arch width (anterior dental arch width) was significantly greater in the exacerbation group than in the non-exacerbation group for both PC-OA and VI-OA (p < 0.05). In mild-OSA, the maxillary and mandibular dental arch lengths and the ratio of maxillary to mandibular dental arch width (posterior dental arch width) were significantly smaller in the exacerbation group than in the non-exacerbation group for S-OA (p < 0.05). This study confirmed that wearing an MOA by w/o-OSA and mild-OSA participants may increase the REI during sleep and that PC-OA and VI-OA may increase the REI more than S-OA. The maxillary and mandibular dental-arch dimensions may affect the REI when using an MOA.

Keywords: maxillary oral appliance; respiratory event index; sleep apnea; sleep quality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Mandible
  • Maxilla*
  • Polysomnography
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive* / therapy

Grant support

This research was funded by JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (grant numbers 18K17140).