Muscle-Related Effect of Whey Protein and Vitamin D 3 Supplementation Provided before or after Bedtime in Males Undergoing Resistance Training

Nutrients. 2022 May 30;14(11):2289. doi: 10.3390/nu14112289.


There is increasing evidence that dietary protein intake with leucine and vitamin D is an important factor in muscle protein synthesis. This study investigated the combined effects of consuming whey protein and vitamin D3 in the evening before bedtime or in the morning after sleeping on muscle mass and strength. Healthy, untrained males (N = 42; Age = 18-24 year) were randomly assigned into three groups: before bedtime, after sleeping, and control. Subjects underwent a 6-week resistance training program in combination with supplements that provided 25 g whey protein and 4000 IU vitamin D3 for the before bedtime and after sleeping groups and a 5 g maltodextrin placebo for the control group. A significant increase in serum vitamin D was observed in both before bedtime and after sleeping groups. All groups experienced a significant gain in leg press. However, the control group did not experience significant improvements in muscle mass and associated blood hormones that were experienced by the before bedtime and after sleeping groups. No significant differences in assessed values were observed between the before bedtime and after sleeping groups. These findings suggest that the combination of whey protein and vitamin D supplements provided either before or after sleep resulted in beneficial increases in muscle mass in young males undergoing resistance training that exceeded the changes observed without these supplements.

Keywords: muscle mass; muscle strength; protein distribution; vitamin D; whey protein.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Body Composition
  • Cholecalciferol / pharmacology
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscle Strength
  • Muscle, Skeletal
  • Muscles
  • Resistance Training*
  • Vitamin D / pharmacology
  • Whey Proteins / pharmacology
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Proteins
  • Whey Proteins
  • Vitamin D
  • Cholecalciferol