Objective: To analyze the associations between serum 25(OH)D levels and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, and the related genetic and non-genetic factors in non-diabetic women of childbearing age in China.
Methods: Subjects were randomly selected from the 2015 Chinese Adult Chronic Disease and Nutrition Surveillance. The data of sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors were obtained through questionnaire survey. Anthropometry was measured by trained interviewers, and fasting blood was collected to test 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and other related parameters. Generalized linear mode and multivariate logistic analysis were performed to analyze the associations between serum 25(OH)D and MetS and its components, adjusting for the possible confounders.
Results: Body mass index (BMI), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 25(OH)D, phosphorus (P), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were associated with the number of MetS's components. G allele carriers of GC rs2282679 had higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and FBG levels compared with the TT genotypes, while higher genetic risk score (GRS) seemed to be associated with reduced HDL-C level. The odds ratio (OR) for MetS in lowest group of 25(OH)D was 1.533 (0.980-2.399) after adjusting for season, district, area type, latitude, age, BMI, PTH, P, ALT, CRE, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hs-CRP, compared with the median group, but the association was not significant. An insufficient 25(OH)D concentration (<14.22 ng/mL) was significantly related to the risk of elevated waist circumference (WC) (OR = 1.612 (1.014-2.561)) and TG (OR = 2.210 (1.318-3.706)), and reduced HDL-C (OR = 1.639 (1.206-2.229)) after adjusting for the confounders among these women. Moreover, these relationships were not affected by vitamin D metabolism-related gene polymorphisms.
Conclusion: After comprehensively considering various influencing factors, significant associations between insufficient serum 25(OH)D and MetS's components, including elevated WC, TG, and reduced HDL-C, were observed. However, MetS, hypertension, and hyperglycemia were not found independently associated with 25(OH)D levels.
Keywords: gene polymorphism; metabolic syndrome; vitamin D.