A Prospective Viewpoint on Neurological Diseases and Their Biomarkers

Molecules. 2022 May 30;27(11):3516. doi: 10.3390/molecules27113516.


Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are disorders that affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems. To name a few causes, NDDs can be caused by ischemia, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cell stress, inflammation, abnormal protein deposition in neural tissue, autoimmune-mediated neuron loss, and viral or prion infections. These conditions include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). The formation of β-sheet-rich aggregates of intra- or extracellular proteins in the CNS hallmarks all neurodegenerative proteinopathies. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), numerous organs, including the central nervous system (CNS), are affected. However, the inflammatory process is linked to several neurodegenerative pathways that are linked to depression because of NDDs. Pro-inflammatory signals activated by aging may increase vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. Viruses may increase macrophages and CCR5+ T cells within the CNS during dementia formation and progression. Unlike medical symptoms, which are just signs of a patient's health as expressed and perceived, biomarkers are reproducible and quantitative. Therefore, this current review will highlight and summarize the neurological disorders and their biomarkers.

Keywords: biomarkers; neuroinflammation; neurological disorder; proteinopathies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease* / metabolism
  • Biomarkers
  • Humans
  • Lewy Body Disease*
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases*
  • Prospective Studies


  • Biomarkers

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.