Single Diode Solar Cells-Improved Model and Exact Current-Voltage Analytical Solution Based on Lambert's W Function

Sensors (Basel). 2022 May 31;22(11):4173. doi: 10.3390/s22114173.


There are three standard equivalent circuit models of solar cells in the literature-single-diode, double-diode, and triple-diode models. In this paper, first, a modified version of the single diode model, called the Improved Single Diode Model (ISDM), is presented. This modification is realized by adding resistance in series with the diode to enable better power loss dissipation representation. Second, the mathematical expression for the current-voltage relation of this circuit is derived in terms of Lambert's W function and solved by using the special trans function theory. Third, a novel hybrid algorithm for solar cell parameters estimation is proposed. The proposed algorithm, called SA-MRFO, is used for the parameter estimation of the standard single diode and improved single diode models. The proposed model's accuracy and the proposed algorithm's efficiency are tested on a standard RTC France solar cell and SOLAREX module MSX 60. Furthermore, the experimental verification of the proposed circuit and the proposed solar cell parameter estimation algorithm on a solar laboratory module is also realized. Based on all the results obtained, it is shown that the proposed circuit significantly improves current-voltage solar cell representation in comparison with the standard single diode model and many results in the literature on the double diode and triple diode models. Additionally, it is shown that the proposed algorithm is effective and outperforms many literature algorithms in terms of accuracy and convergence speed.

Keywords: Lambert’s W function; mathematical models; optimization; parameter estimation; photovoltaics; solar cells; special trans function theory.