Purpose: To examine the relationship between Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) and response to therapy of 6 Fusarium spp. and 5 Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from equine ulcerative keratitis cases.
Procedure: Fungi were identified by morphology and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with sequencing and evaluated at the University of Texas Fungal Testing Laboratory for susceptibility to three azole antifungals (miconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole), natamycin, and two echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin). A Mann-Whitney rank sum test was used for the comparison of time to heal between infections of different fungal genera and in vitro susceptibility to the drug administered.
Results: Fusarium spp. were resistant to azole antifungals in 6/6 cases (100%). Fusarium spp. were susceptible to echinocandins and natamycin in all cases. A. fumigatus was resistant to anidulafungin in 1/5 cases (20%) and posaconazole in 1/5 cases (20%) The remainder of A. fumigatus isolates were susceptible to all antifungal agents tested. Fusarium isolates were treated with antifungals to which they were not susceptible; however, all cases of A. fumigatus were treated with antifungals to which they were susceptible. All Fusarium cases and A. fumigatus cases experienced clinical resolution, regardless of surgical intervention. There was no statistical correlation between fungal genus and time to heal (p < .082).
Conclusions: The in vitro susceptibility indicated that all cases of Fusarium spp. were resistant to azole antifungal drugs which were used as treatment. Clinical outcomes, however, showed that all cases healed despite resistance to antifungals.
Keywords: antifungal; antifungal susceptibility; equine; equine keratomycosis; fungal keratitis; in vitro.
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