Clinical Spectrum of Hereditary Hypophosphatemic Rickets With Hypercalciuria (HHRH)

J Bone Miner Res. 2022 Aug;37(8):1580-1591. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.4630. Epub 2022 Jul 8.


Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) represents an FGF23-independent disease caused by biallelic variants in the solute carrier family 34-member 3 (SLC34A3) gene. HHRH is characterized by chronic hypophosphatemia and an increased risk for nephrocalcinosis and rickets/osteomalacia, muscular weakness, and secondary limb deformity. Biochemical changes, but no relevant skeletal changes, have been reported for heterozygous SLC34A3 carriers. Therefore, we assessed the characteristics of individuals with biallelic and monoallelic SLC34A3 variants. In 8 index patients and 5 family members, genetic analysis was performed using a custom gene panel. The skeletal assessment comprised biochemical parameters, areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and bone microarchitecture. Pathogenic SLC34A3 variants were revealed in 7 of 13 individuals (2 homozygous, 5 heterozygous), whereas 3 of 13 carried monoallelic variants of unknown significance. Whereas both homozygous individuals had nephrocalcinosis, only one displayed a skeletal phenotype consistent with HHRH. Reduced to low-normal phosphate levels, decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP), and high-normal to elevated values of 1,25-OH2 -D3 accompanied by normal cFGF23 levels were revealed independently of mutational status. Interestingly, individuals with nephrocalcinosis showed significantly increased calcium excretion and 1,25-OH2 -D3 levels but normal phosphate reabsorption. Furthermore, aBMD Z-score <-2.0 was revealed in 4 of 8 heterozygous carriers, and HR-pQCT analysis showed a moderate decrease in structural parameters. Our findings highlight the clinical relevance also of monoallelic SLC34A3 variants, including their potential skeletal impairment. Calcium excretion and 1,25-OH2 -D3 levels, but not TRP, were associated with nephrocalcinosis. Future studies should investigate the effects of distinct SLC34A3 variants and optimize treatment and monitoring regimens to prevent nephrocalcinosis and skeletal deterioration. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


MeSH terms

  • Calcium / therapeutic use
  • Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets* / complications
  • Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets* / diagnostic imaging
  • Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hypercalciuria / complications
  • Hypercalciuria / drug therapy
  • Hypercalciuria / genetics
  • Nephrocalcinosis* / genetics
  • Phosphates
  • Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIc / genetics


  • Phosphates
  • Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIc
  • Calcium