Outcomes During and After Early Intervention Services for First-Episode Psychosis: Results Over 5 Years From the RAISE-ETP Site-Randomized Trial

Schizophr Bull. 2022 Sep 1;48(5):1021-1031. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbac053.


To examine long-term effects of early intervention services (EIS) for first-episode psychosis, we compared Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life (QLS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores and inpatient hospitalization days over 5 years with data from the site-randomized RAISE-ETP trial that compared the EIS NAVIGATE (17 sites; 223 participants) and community care (CC) (17 sites; 181 participants). Inclusion criteria were: age 15-40 years; DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, brief psychotic disorder, or psychotic disorder not otherwise specified; first psychotic episode; antipsychotic medication taken for ≤6 months. NAVIGATE-randomized participants could receive NAVIGATE from their study entry date until NAVIGATE ended when the last-enrolled NAVIGATE participant completed 2 years of treatment. Assessments occurred every 6 months. 61% of participants had assessments conducted ≥2 years; 31% at 5 years. Median follow-up length was CC 30 months and NAVIGATE 38 months. Primary analyses assumed data were not-missing-at-random (NMAR); sensitivity analyses assumed data were missing-at-random (MAR). MAR analyses found no significant treatment-by-time interactions for QLS or PANSS. NMAR analyses revealed that NAVIGATE was associated with a 13.14 (95%CI:6.92,19.37) unit QLS and 7.73 (95%CI:2.98,12.47) unit PANSS better improvement and 2.53 (95%CI:0.59,4.47) fewer inpatient days than CC (all comparisons significant). QLS and PANSS effect sizes were 0.856 and 0.70. NAVIGATE opportunity length (mean 33.8 (SD = 5.1) months) was not associated (P = .72) with QLS outcome; duration of untreated psychosis did not moderate (P = .32) differential QLS outcome. While conclusions are limited by the low rate of five-year follow-up, the data support long-term benefit of NAVIGATE compared to community care.

Keywords: coordinated specialty care; early intervention services; first episode psychosis; follow-up; schizophrenia.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antipsychotic Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Humans
  • Psychotic Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Quality of Life
  • Schizophrenia* / drug therapy
  • Young Adult


  • Antipsychotic Agents