Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1: Clinical manifestations, pathogenetic features, and management approach

Autoimmun Rev. 2022 Aug;21(8):103135. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2022.103135. Epub 2022 Jun 9.


Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is an autosomal recessive hereditary pathology that develops with endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations in childhood. The classic triad of APS-1 includes chronic candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes, adrenal insufficiency, and hypoparathyroidism. APS-1 is often accompanied by hypogonadism, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroiditis, vitiligo, alopecia, asplenia, pneumonitis, gastritis, pernicious anemia, and intestinal dysfunction, nephritis, and hepatitis. The prevalence rate is highest in genetically isolated populations (up to 1:6500-1:9000). APS-1 occurs because of mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, leading to a disrupted mechanism of normal antigen expression, the formation of abnormal clones of immune cells, and autoimmune damage to various organs. Analysis of the AIRE gene is the main diagnostic method for early detection of APS-1 and the choice of methods for its treatment. Timely genetic counseling makes it possible to identify the disease early, prescribe appropriate treatment and prevent serious complications. This paper analyzes scientific information characterizing clinical manifestations of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 in association with its pathogenetic features, epidemiology, and current management.

Keywords: AIRE gene; Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-1; Clinical manifestations; Epidemiology; Genetic predisposition.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Insufficiency*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hypoparathyroidism* / complications
  • Hypoparathyroidism* / genetics
  • Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune* / diagnosis
  • Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune* / genetics
  • Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune* / therapy
  • Thyroiditis, Autoimmune* / complications