The interplay between XPG-Asp1104His polymorphism and reproductive risk factors elevates risk of breast cancer in Tanzanian women: A multiple interaction analysis

Cancer Med. 2023 Jan;12(1):472-487. doi: 10.1002/cam4.4914. Epub 2022 Jun 12.


Background: Reproductive history and genetics are well-known risk factors of breast cancer (BC). Little is known about how these factors interact to effect BC. This study investigated the association of ten polymorphisms in DNA repair genes with BC susceptibility in the Tanzanian samples and further analyzed the association between reproductive risk factors and disease risk METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study in 263 histopathological confirmed BC patients and 250 age-matched cancer-free controls was carried out. Allelic, genotypic, and haplotype association analyses were executed. Also, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), and interaction dendrogram approaches were performed.

Results: The frequency of genotypic and allelic variants of XRCC1-Arg399Gln (rs25487), XRCC2-Arg188His (rs3218536), XRCC3-Thr241Met (rs861539), XPG-Asp1104His (rs17655), and MSH2-Gly322Asp (rs4987188) were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, XRCC1-Arg399Gln (rs25487), XRCC3-Thr241Met (rs861539), and XPG-Asp1104His (rs17655) were associated with the increased risk of BC in co-dominant, dominant, recessive, and additive genetic-inheritance models (p < 0.05). XRCC1-Arg/Gln genotype indicated a 3.1-fold increased risk of BC in pre-menopausal patients (p = 0.001) while XPG-His/His genotype showed a 1.2-fold increased risk in younger BC patients (<40 years) (p = 0.028). Asp/His+His/His genotypes indicated a 1.3-fold increased risk of BC in PR+ patients and a 1.1-fold decreased risk of BC in luminal-A patients (p = 0.014, p = 0.020, respectively). MDR analysis revealed a positive interaction between BC and the XPG-Asp1104His (rs17655) together with family history of cancer in the first-degree relatives. Dendrogram analysis indicated that the XPG-Asp1104His (rs17655) and family history of cancer in first-degree relatives were significantly synergistic and might be associated with an elevated risk of BC in Tanzania.

Conclusions: The XPG-Asp1104His (rs17655) might exert both independent and interactive effects on BC development in the Tanzanian women.

Keywords: XPG; DNA repair genes; breast cancer; multifactor dimensionality reduction; polymorphism.

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Breast Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Case-Control Studies
  • DNA Repair
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Reproductive History
  • Risk Factors
  • Tanzania / epidemiology
  • X-ray Repair Cross Complementing Protein 1 / genetics


  • XRCC1 protein, human
  • X-ray Repair Cross Complementing Protein 1
  • XRCC2 protein, human
  • DNA-Binding Proteins