Time-activity and daily mobility patterns during pregnancy and early postpartum - evidence from the MADRES cohort

Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol. 2022 Jun;41:100502. doi: 10.1016/j.sste.2022.100502. Epub 2022 Mar 24.


Introduction: Pregnant women's daily time-activity and mobility patterns determine their environmental exposures and subsequently related health effects. Most studies ignore these and assess pregnancy exposures using static residential measures.

Methods: We conducted 4-day continuous geo-location monitoring in 62 pregnant Hispanic women, during pregnancy and early post-partum then derived trips by mode and stays, classified by context (indoor/outdoor, type). Generalized mixed-effect models were used to examine whether these patterns changed over time.

Results: Women spent on average 17.3 h/day at home. Commercial and service locations were the most popular non-home destinations, while parks and open spaces were seldom visited. Women made 3.5 daily trips (63.7 min/day and approximately 25% were pedestrian-based). Women were less likely to visit commercial and services locations and make vehicle-based trips postpartum compared to the 3rd trimester.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest time-activity patterns vary across pregnancy and postpartum, thus assessing exposures at stationary locations might introduce measurement error.

Keywords: Daily mobility; Exposure assessment; Global positioning systems; Pregnancy; Time-activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Cohort Studies
  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Postpartum Period*
  • Pregnancy