Molecular diagnostic testing has had a profound impact on the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. Based on the tremendous expansion of knowledge of the genomic landscape of thyroid cancer over the past few decades, tests have been developed, analyzed, modified, and implemented into clinical practice. Genomic testing of thyroid nodules to improve preoperative diagnosis has become an important component supporting decision-making in clinical care, reducing the need for diagnostic surgeries and improving accuracy of cancer risk assessment. In addition, a role for molecular testing of established thyroid cancers to assist in selection of therapeutic options for patients with advanced and/or progressive disease has been established. Research is ongoing to determine if molecular results should affect management of less aggressive forms of thyroid cancer earlier in clinical management. This review will outline the various commercial platforms for molecular diagnostics for nodules emphasizing their performance parameters and indications for use, as well as discuss the use of genomic analysis for progressive thyroid cancer and highlight opportunities for further research.
Keywords: genomics; kinase inhibitors; targeted therapies; thyroid nodules.
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