Comparison of Microbial Populations in the Blood of Patients With Myocardial Infarction and Healthy Individuals

Front Microbiol. 2022 May 25;13:845038. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.845038. eCollection 2022.


Increased bacterial translocation in the gut and bloodstream infections are both major comorbidities of heart failure and myocardial infarction (MI). However, the alterations in the microbiome of the blood of patients with MI remain unclear. To test this hypothesis, we conducted this case-control study to explore the microbiota compositions in the blood of Chinese patients with MI. Using high-throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, the microbiota communities in the blood of 29 patients with MI and 29 healthy controls were examined. In addition, the relationship between the blood microbiome and clinical features of MI was investigated. This study revealed a significant reduction in alpha diversity (Shannon index) in the MI group compared with the healthy controls. Also, a significant difference was detected in the structure and richness between the patients with MI and healthy controls. The members of the phylum Actinobacteria, class Actinobacteria, order Bifdobacteriales, family Bifidobacteriaceae, and genus Bifidobacterium were significantly abundant in the MI group, while the members of the phylum Bacteroidetes, class Bacteroidia, and order Bacteroidales were significantly enriched in the healthy controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, the functional analysis revealed a significant variation between both groups. For instance, the enrichment of genes involved in the metabolism pathways of three amino acids decreased, that is, nucleotide transport and metabolism, coenzyme transport and metabolism, and lipid transport and metabolism, among others. Our study will contribute to a better knowledge of the microbiota of blood, which will further lead to improved MI diagnosis and therapy. Further study is needed to determine the role of the blood microbiota in human health and disease.

Keywords: HiSeq; bacteria; blood circulation; functional analysis; myocardial infarction.