Internal exposure to actinides such as uranium and plutonium has been reduced using chelating agents for decorporation because of their potential to induce both radiological and chemical toxicities. This study measures uranium chemical forms in serum in the presence and absence of chelating agents based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The chelating agents used were 1-hydroxyethane 1,1-bisphosphonate (EHBP), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), deferoxamine B (DFO), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA). Percentages of uranium-chelating agents and uranium-bioligands (bioligands: inorganic and organic ligands coordinating with uranium) dissolving in the serum were successfully evaluated based on principal component analysis of XAS spectra. The main ligands forming complexes with uranium in the serum were estimated as follows: IP6 > EHBP > bioligands > DFO ≫ DTPA when the concentration ratio of the chelating agent to uranium was 10. Measurements of uranium chemical forms and their concentrations in the serum would be useful for the appropriate treatment using chelating agents for the decorporation of uranium.