Comorbid allergic rhinitis and asthma: important clinical considerations

Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2022 Jul;18(7):747-758. doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2022.2089654. Epub 2022 Jun 19.


Introduction: The numerous links between allergic rhinitis and asthma have been extensively explored in the last two decades, gaining great concern within the scientific community. These two conditions frequently coexist in the same patient and share numerous pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms.

Areas covered: We reviewed major pathophysiological, epidemiological, and clinical links between allergic rhinitis and asthma. We also provided a comprehensive discussion of allergic rhinitis treatment according to current guidelines, with a particular focus on the relevance of allergic rhinitis therapies in patients with comorbid asthma.

Expert opinion: We believe that there are several unmet needs for our patients, however, there are promising advances forecasted for the future. Although allergic rhinitis is a recognized risk factor for asthma, a proper asthma detection and prevention plan in allergic rhinitis patients is not available. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) represents a promising preventive strategy and may deserve an earlier positioning in allergic rhinitis management. A multidisciplinary approach should characterize the journey of patients with respiratory allergies, with an adequate referral to specialized Allergy/Asthma centers. Molecular Allergy Diagnosis may provide support for optimal AIT use. Finally, a possible evolution of biological treatment can be envisaged, mainly if biosimilars decrease such therapies' costs.

Keywords: United airway disease; allergen immunotherapy; allergic rhinitis; allergic rhinitis treatment; asthma; asthma comorbidities; respiratory allergies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Asthma* / epidemiology
  • Asthma* / etiology
  • Asthma* / therapy
  • Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals*
  • Desensitization, Immunologic / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Rhinitis, Allergic* / epidemiology
  • Rhinitis, Allergic* / therapy


  • Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals