Sonochemical Internalization of Bleomycin Inhibits Adenocarcinoma Breast Tumor Development in an Orthotopic Rat Model

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2022;41(2):25-35. doi: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2021040536.


One approach to reducing post-operative tumor recurrence and alleviate debilitating side effects of systemic chemotherapy, is work centered on the development of drug activation by focused and targeted externally applied physical energy thus providing site and temporal specificity. One such technique, light mediated photochemical internalization (PCI), has been shown to be a method to obtain enhanced chemotherapy efficacy for a wide variety of anti-cancer agents. A related technology, sonochemical internaization (SCI), is an extension of the PCI concept developed to overcome the limitations of poor light penetration in tissue. SCI utilizes ultrasonic energy, to activate sonosensitizers, co-administered with anti cancer agents. The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of SCI of bleomycin (BLM), both in vitro and in vivo, on the adenocarcinoma breast tumor rat cell line Mat B III. In vitro, the two aspects of sonication, sonoporation (SP) and sonochemical internalization (SCI) of BLM were examined. In vivo, BLM-SCI significantly inhibited tumor development, following Mat B III implantation, in an orthotopic breast tumor animal model using Fisher rats.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma*
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents* / pharmacology
  • Bleomycin / pharmacology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Photochemotherapy* / methods
  • Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology
  • Rats


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Photosensitizing Agents
  • Bleomycin