Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common inherited heart disease, is still orphan of a specific drug treatment. The erroneous consideration of HCM as a rare disease has hampered the design and conduct of large, randomized trials in the last 50 years, and most of the indications in the current guidelines are derived from small non-randomized studies, case series, or simply from the consensus of experts. Guideline-directed therapy of HCM includes non-selective drugs such as disopyramide, non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, or β-adrenergic receptor blockers, mainly used in patients with symptomatic obstruction of the outflow tract. Following promising preclinical studies, several drugs acting on potential HCM-specific targets were tested in patients. Despite the huge efforts, none of these studies was able to change clinical practice for HCM patients, because tested drugs were proven to be scarcely effective or hardly tolerated in patients. However, novel compounds have been developed in recent years specifically for HCM, addressing myocardial hypercontractility and altered energetics in a direct manner, through allosteric inhibition of myosin. In this paper, we will critically review the use of different classes of drugs in HCM patients, starting from "old" established agents up to novel selective drugs that have been recently trialed in patients.
© 2022. The Author(s).