Risk factors for prolonged time to hospital discharge after ambulatory cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. A retrospective cohort study

Int J Surg. 2022 Aug;104:106706. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2022.106706. Epub 2022 Jun 11.


Background: Although predictive models have already integrated demographic factors and comorbidities as risk factors for a prolonged hospital stay, factors related to anaesthesia management in ambulatory surgery have not been yet characterized. This study aims to identify anaesthetic factors associated with a prolonged discharge time in ambulatory surgery.

Methods: All clinical records of patients who underwent ambulatory cholecystectomy in a French University Hospital (Hôpital Saint Antoine, Paris) between January 1st, 2012 and December 31st, 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary endpoint was the discharge time, defined as the time between the end of surgery and discharge. A multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model was fitted to investigate the factors associated with a prolonged discharge time.

Results: Five hundred and thirty-five (535) patients were included. The median time for discharge was 150 min (interquartile range - IQR [129-192]). A bivariable analysis highlighted a positive correlation between discharge timeline and the doses-weight of ketamine and sufentanil. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model analysis, the anaesthesia-related factors independently associated with prolonged discharge time were the dose-weight of ketamine in interaction with the dose weight of sufentanil (HR 0.10 per increment of 0.1 mg/kg of ketamine or 0.2 μg/kg of sufentanil, CI 95% [0.01-0.61], p = 0.013) and the non-use of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (HR 0.81 [0.67-0.98], p = 0.034). Twenty patients (4%) had unscheduled hospitalization following surgery.

Conclusion: Anaesthesia management, namely the use of ketamine and the non-use of NSAID, affects time to hospital discharge.

Keywords: Ambulatory surgery; Anaesthesia; Cholecystectomy; Hospital discharge.

MeSH terms

  • Ambulatory Surgical Procedures
  • Anesthesia, General
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Cholecystectomy
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Ketamine*
  • Patient Discharge*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sufentanil


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Ketamine
  • Sufentanil