Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that affects a substantial number of children and has a significant negative impact on affected patients and their caregivers/families. Recent studies have led to significant evolutions in the understanding of AD pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment. The first point of contact for many patients with new-onset AD is usually with their primary care provider or pediatrician. This underscores the importance for pediatricians to understand the basic pathophysiology and current standards of care for AD. This article provides up-to-date information and reviews the basic principles of AD pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. In addition, the article highlights recent advances in scientific research regarding the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis that have resulted in the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and the development of targeted biologic therapies with the potential to revolutionize AD therapy.
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