Time-limited diets and the gut microbiota in cardiometabolic disease

J Diabetes. 2022 Jun;14(6):377-393. doi: 10.1111/1753-0407.13288. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Abstract

In recent years, intermittent fasting (IF), including periodic fasting and time-restricted feeding (TRF), has been increasingly suggested to constitute a promising treatment for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD). A deliberate daily pause in food consumption influences the gut microbiome and the host circadian clock, resulting in improved cardiometabolic health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which circadian host-microbiome interactions affect host metabolism and immunity may add a potentially important dimension to effective implementation of IF diets. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence potentially linking compositional and functional alterations of the gut microbiome with IF impacts on mammalian metabolism and risk of development of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and their long-term micro- and macrovascular complications. We highlight the challenges and unknowns in causally linking diurnal bacterial signals with dietary cues and downstream metabolic consequences and means of harnessing these signals toward future microbiome integration into precision medicine.

近年来, 间歇性禁食(IF), 包括周期性禁食和限时进食(TRF), 逐渐被认为是心脏代谢性疾病(CMDS)的潜在治疗方法。每天有意识地停止进食会影响肠道微生物群和宿主生物钟, 从而改善心脏代谢健康。了解昼夜宿主-微生物组相互作用影响宿主新陈代谢和免疫的分子机制, 可能会为有效实施IF饮食增加一个潜在的重要维度。在这篇综述中, 我们讨论了IF可能改变肠道微生物组的组成和功能, 从而影响哺乳动物的新陈代谢以及高血压, 2型糖尿病(T2D), 肥胖及其长期微血管和大血管并发症的发展风险。我们强调了在将昼夜细菌信号与饮食线索和下游代谢进行因果关联的挑战和未知, 以及利用这些信号实现未来微生物组与精准医疗的整合的手段。.

Keywords: cardiometabolic disease; circadian rhythms; gut microbiome; intermittent fasting; time-restricted feeding; 心脏代谢性疾病; 昼夜节律; 肠道菌群; 间歇性禁食; 限时进食.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  • Diet
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Humans
  • Mammals

Grant support