Design of the COmbinatioN effect of FInerenone anD EmpaglifloziN in participants with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes using a UACR Endpoint study (CONFIDENCE)

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2023 Mar 31;38(4):894-903. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfac198.


Background: Despite available interventions, people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain at risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Finerenone, a potent and selective nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) can reduce both kidney and cardiovascular risks in people with CKD and T2D. Here we outline the design of a study to investigate whether dual therapy with finerenone and an SGLT2i is superior to either agent alone.

Methods: CONFIDENCE (NCT05254002) is a randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, international, multicenter, three-armed, parallel-group, 7.5 - to 8.5-month, Phase 2 study in 807 adults with T2D, stage 2-3 CKD and a urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥300-<5000 mg/g. The primary objective is to demonstrate that 6 months of dual therapy comprising finerenone and the SGLT2i empagliflozin is superior for reducing albuminuria versus either agent alone. Interventions will be once-daily finerenone 10 mg or 20 mg (target dose) plus empagliflozin 10 mg, or empagliflozin 10 mg alone, or finerenone 10 mg or 20 mg (target dose) alone.

Results: The primary outcome is a relative change from baseline in UACR among the three groups. Secondary outcomes will further characterize efficacy and safety, including changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate and incident hyperkalemia.

Conclusions: CONFIDENCE is evaluating the safety, tolerability and efficacy of dual use of finerenone and an SGLT2i in adults with CKD and T2D. Should an additive effect be shown, early and efficient intervention with dual finerenone and SGLT2i therapy could slow disease progression and provide long-term benefits for people with CKD and T2D.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease; diabetes; empagliflozin; finerenone; macroalbuminuria.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Diabetic Nephropathies* / complications
  • Diabetic Nephropathies* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / drug therapy


  • finerenone
  • empagliflozin