Pediatric Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors: Expression of microRNA

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2023 Mar 1;45(2):e174-e179. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000002495. Epub 2022 Jun 7.


Background: Germ cell tumors (GCTs) may occur from the neonatal period to late adulthood, characterized by extensive clinical and pathologic heterogeneity. MicroRNAs are a family of small noncoding RNAs that regulate a wide array of biological processes including carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs may be used for many purposes in clinical diagnostics. Numerous studies have proven the diagnostic value of microRNA371-373 and microRNA302/367 expression in malignant GCT. The diagnostic value of microRNA375 is disputable, because while its value is confirmed by some research data, there are still others denying it.

Methods: The results of our own research on the relative expression of 10 microRNAs, including microRNA375, associated with GCT in the tumor tissues of 84 children and adolescents are presented.

Results: In our research, overexpression of microRNA 371-373, 302/367 detected in the group of malignant GCT subtypes. Statistically significant expression of microRNA375 have been defined not only in the group of malignant GCT subtypes, but also in the group of immature teratomas. Among malignant GCTs, high expression of microRNA375 is specific for yolk sac tumors. In the group of seminomas, embryonic carcinomas, and mature teratomas expression of microRNA375 was observed imperceptible, even so the results were statistically insignificant.

Conclusion: Expression of microRNA 371-373, 302/367 is representative of malignant GCT subtypes. Statistically significant and high expression of microRNA375 attributable for yolk sac tumors and immature teratomas.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Endodermal Sinus Tumor*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • MicroRNAs* / genetics
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal*
  • RNA, Small Untranslated*
  • Teratoma* / pathology
  • Testicular Neoplasms*


  • MicroRNAs
  • RNA, Small Untranslated
  • MIRN371 microRNA, human
  • MIRN375 microRNA, human