The Piezo channel family, including Piezo1 and Piezo2, includes essential mechanosensitive transduction molecules in mammals. Functioning in the conversion of mechanical signals to biological signals to regulate a plethora of physiological processes, Piezo channels, which have a unique homotrimeric three-blade propeller-shaped structure, utilize a cap-motion and plug-and-latch mechanism to gate their ion-conducting pathways. Piezo channels have a wide range of biological roles in various human systems, both in vitro and in vivo. Currently, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of their antagonists and agonists, and therefore further investigation is needed. Remarkably, increasingly compelling evidence demonstrates that Piezo channel function in the urinary system is important. This review article systematically summarizes the existing evidence of the importance of Piezo channels, including protein structure, mechanogating mechanisms, and pharmacological characteristics, with a particular focus on their physiological and pathophysiological roles in the urinary system. Collectively, this review aims to provide a direction for future clinical applications in urinary system diseases.
© 2022. The Author(s).