The association of physical activity to oral glucose tolerance test outcomes in multiple autoantibody positive children: The TEDDY Study

Pediatr Diabetes. 2022 Jun 14. doi: 10.1111/pedi.13382. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: To examine the association of physical activity (PA), measured by accelerometry, to hemoglobin AIC (HbA1c) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) outcomes in children who were multiple persistent confirmed autoantibody positive for type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Methods: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) multinational study followed children from birth. Children ≥3 years of age who were multiple persistent confirmed autoantibody positive were monitored by OGTTs every 6 months. TEDDY children's PA was measured by accelerometry beginning at 5 years of age. We examined the relationship between moderate plus vigorous (mod + vig) PA, HbA1c, and OGTT in 209 multiple autoantibody children who had both OGTT and PA measurements.

Results: Mod + vig PA was associated with both glucose and C-peptide measures (fasting, 120-min, and AUC); higher mod + vig PA was associated with a better OGTT response primarily in children with longer duration of multiple autoantibody positivity. Mod + vig PA also interacted with child age; lower mod + vig PA was associated with a greater increase in C-peptide response across age. Mod + vig PA was not related to fasting insulin, HOMA-IR or HbA1c.

Conclusions: The OGTT is the gold standard for diabetes diagnosis and is used to monitor those at high risk for T1D. We found higher levels of mod + vig PA were associated with better OGTT outcomes in children ≥5 years of age who have been multiple autoantibody positive for longer periods of time. Physical activity should be the focus of future efforts to better understand the determinants of disease progression in high-risk children.

Keywords: OGTT; multiple autoantibody positive; physical activity.