A pilot study on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers in the US

PLoS One. 2022 Jun 15;17(6):e0269320. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0269320. eCollection 2022.


To explore the attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination among healthcare workers in the US, we surveyed three groups of individuals (essential non-healthcare workers, general healthcare workers, and correctional healthcare workers). We found surprisingly high portions of healthcare workers with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy/resistance, with 23% of correctional healthcare workers and 17% general healthcare workers (as compared to 12%) refusing to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Multivariate regression models suggest that current season flu vaccination (aOR = 3.34), relying on employer for COVID-19 information (aOR = 3.69), and living in the Midwest (aOR = 5.04) to be strongly associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among essential workers and general healthcare workers. Current season flu vaccination (aOR = 7.52) is also strongly associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among correctional healthcare workers. Potential mechanisms of vaccine hesitancy/resistance among healthcare workers involves low health literacy and employer mistrust. Our findings are highly relevant as we try to reach COVID-19 vaccination goals in the US.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Personnel
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Urinary Bladder Diseases*
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccination Hesitancy


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Influenza Vaccines