A 2D nanotheranostic platform based on graphene oxide and phase-change materials for bimodal CT/MR imaging, NIR-activated drug release, and synergistic thermo-chemotherapy

Nanotheranostics. 2022 May 24;6(4):350-364. doi: 10.7150/ntno.64790. eCollection 2022.


Recent years have seen considerable progress in the development of nanomedicine by the advent of 2D nanomaterials serving as ideal platforms to integrate multiple theranostic functions. We synthesized multifunctional stimuli-responsive 2D-based smart nanocomposites (NCs), comprising gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) scaffolded within graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, coated with doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded 1-tetradecanol (TD), and further modified with an alginate (Alg) polymer. TD is a phase-change material (PCM) that confines DOX molecules to the GO surface and melts when the temperature exceeds its melting point (Tm=39 °C), causing the PCM to release its drug payload. By virtue of their strong near-infrared (NIR) light absorption and high photothermal conversion efficiency, GO nanosheets may enable photothermal therapy (PTT) and activate a phase change to trigger DOX release. Upon NIR irradiation of NCs, a synergistic thermo-chemotherapeutic effect can be obtained by GO-mediated PTT, resulting an accelerated and controllable drug release through the PCM mechanism. The biodistribution of these NCs could also be imaged with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in vitro and in vivo. Hence, this multifunctional nanotheranostic platform based on 2D nanomaterials appears a promising candidate for multimodal image-guided cancer therapy.

Keywords: Graphene oxide; Nanotheranostics; Phase-change material; Stimuli-responsive; Thermo-chemotherapy.

MeSH terms

  • Drug Liberation
  • Gold
  • Graphite
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Metal Nanoparticles*
  • Nanocomposites*
  • Theranostic Nanomedicine / methods
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • graphene oxide
  • Gold
  • Graphite