Tissue factor (TF) is a procoagulant protein released from activated host cells, such as monocytes, and tumor cells on extracellular vesicles (EVs). TF + EVs are observed in the circulation of patients with various types of diseases. In this review, we will summarize the association between TF + EVs and activation of coagulation and survival in different types of diseases, including cancer, sepsis, and infections with different viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza A virus (IAV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We will also discuss the source of TF + EVs in various diseases. EVTF activity is associated with thrombosis in pancreatic cancer patients and coronavirus disease 2019 patients (COVID-19) and with disseminated intravascular coagulation in cancer patients. EVTF activity is also associated with worse survival in patients with cancer and COVID-19. Monocytes are the major sources of TF + EVs in sepsis, and viral infections, such as HIV, Ebola virus, and SARS-CoV-2. In contrast, alveolar epithelial cells are the major source of TF + EVs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in COVID-19 and influenza A patients. These studies indicate that EVTF activity could be used as a biomarker to identify patients that have an increased risk of coagulopathy and mortality.
Keywords: cancer; disease; extracellular vesicles; infection; tissue factor; virus.
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