Inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) is a clinical syndrome that generally affects young patients and is associated with distressing symptoms. Although the most common symptom is palpitations, it can be accompanied by a myriad of symptoms, including anxiety, dizziness, presyncope, and syncope. The pathogenesis of IST is not well understood and considered multifactorial, with autonomic dysfunction being the central abnormality. IST is a diagnosis of exclusion. Management presents a clinical challenge. The overall efficacy of lifestyle modifications and medical therapy may be limited. Recent advances in catheter and surgical sinus node sparing ablation techniques have led to improvement in outcomes. In addition, increased focus has led to development of multimodality team-based interventions to improve outcomes in this group of patients. In this review, we discuss the mechanistic basis of IST, review current approaches to diagnosis, and outline contemporary therapeutic approaches.
Keywords: cardiac dysautonomia; inappropriate sinus tachycardia; sinus node modification.
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