The Clinical Problem of Pelvic Venous Disorders

Interv Cardiol Clin. 2022 Jul;11(3):307-324. doi: 10.1016/j.iccl.2022.03.003.


Pelvic venous disorders are inter-related pathologic conditions caused by reflux and obstruction in the pelvic veins. It can present a spectrum of clinical features based on the route of transmission of venous hypertension to either distal or caudal venous reservoirs. Imaging can help to visualize pelvic vascular and visceral structures to rule out other gynecologic, gastrointestinal, and urologic diseases. Endovascular treatment, owing to its low invasive nature and high success rate, has become the mainstay in the management of pelvic venous disorders. This article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical presentations, and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to pelvic venous disorders.

Keywords: Cardiovenous syndrome; May-Thurner syndrome; Nutcracker syndrome; Pelvic congestion syndrome; Pelvic venous disorders; Percutaneous embolization; Percutaneous stenting.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pelvic Pain* / diagnosis
  • Pelvic Pain* / etiology
  • Pelvic Pain* / therapy
  • Vascular Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Vascular Diseases* / therapy