As the surgical treatment of spinal degenerative conditions increases, more patients will ultimately require revision spine surgery. Revision spine surgery is more technically demanding than primary surgery with increased complication rates and variable clinical outcomes. The freehand placement of pedicle screws into a previously operated and/or fused level is more difficult due to the altered anatomic landmarks and/or bone loss. Additional benefit of robotic spine surgery is appreciated during such revision spine surgical procedures with unusual anatomic considerations, whereby the preoperative planning using robotic planning software and computer-assisted robotic guidance play a crucial role in assisting the surgeon to "visualize the invisible." We highlight 3 roles of this technology in 3 cases: planning strategic osteotomies, redrilling of screw holes, and insertion of revision screws in previously operated thoracolumbar and cervical spine regions.
Keywords: altered osseous anatomy; computer-assisted robotic guidance; preoperative planning; revision spine surgical procedures; robotic planning software.
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