Objectives: Anomalous aortic origin of the right coronary artery (AAORCA) may cause ischemia and sudden death. However, the specific anatomic indications for surgery are unclear, so dobutamine-stress instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is increasingly used. Meanwhile, advances in fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling can simulate the pulsatile hemodynamics and tissue deformation. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of simulating the resting and dobutamine-stress iFR in AAORCA using patient-specific FSI models and to visualize the mechanism of ischemia within the intramural geometry and associated lumen narrowing.
Methods: We developed 6 patient-specific FSI models of AAORCA using SimVascular software. Three-dimensional geometries were segmented from coronary computed tomography angiography. Vascular outlets were coupled to lumped-parameter networks that included dynamic compression of the coronary microvasculature and were tuned to each patient's vitals and cardiac output.
Results: All cases were interarterial, and 5 of 6 had an intramural course. Measured iFRs ranged from 0.95 to 0.98 at rest and 0.80 to 0.95 under dobutamine stress. After we tuned the distal coronary resistances to achieve a stress flow rate triple that at rest, the simulations adequately matched the measured iFRs (r = 0.85, root-mean-square error = 0.04). The intramural lumen remained narrowed with simulated stress and resulted in lower iFRs without needing external compression from the pulmonary root.
Conclusions: Patient-specific FSI modeling of AAORCA is a promising, noninvasive method to assess the iFR reduction caused by intramural geometries and inform surgical intervention. However, the models' sensitivity to distal coronary resistance suggests that quantitative stress-perfusion imaging may augment virtual and invasive iFR studies.
Keywords: 3D, 3-dimensional; AAOCA, anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery; AAORCA, anomalous aortic origin of a right coronary artery; CTA, computed tomography angiography; FFR, fractional flow reserve; FSI, fluid–structure interaction; RMSE, root-mean-square error; anomalous coronary artery; cardiac catheterization; computational flow dynamics; coronary computed tomography; coronary flow; iFR, instantaneous wave-free ratio.
© 2022 The Author(s).