Active Treatment of Infants Born at 22-25 Weeks of Gestation in California, 2011-2018

J Pediatr. 2022 Oct;249:67-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.06.013. Epub 2022 Jun 15.


Objective: To determine the rate and trend of active treatment in a population-based cohort of infants born at 22-25 weeks of gestation and to examine factors associated with active treatment.

Study design: This observational study evaluated 8247 infants born at 22-25 weeks of gestation at hospitals in the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative between 2011 and 2018. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate maternal demographic and prenatal factors, fetal characteristics, and hospital level of care to the primary outcome of active treatment.

Results: Active treatment was provided to 6657 infants. The rate at 22 weeks was 19.4% and increased with each advancing week, and was significantly higher for infants born between days 4 and 6 at 22 or 23 weeks of gestation compared with those born between days 0 and 3 (26.2% and 78.3%, respectively, vs 14.1% and 65.9%, respectively; P < .001). The rate of active treatment at 23 weeks increased from 2011 to 2018 (from 64.9% to 83.4%; P < .0001) but did not change significantly at 22 weeks. Factors associated with increased odds of active treatment included maternal Hispanic ethnicity and Black race, preterm premature rupture of membranes, obstetrical bleeding, antenatal steroids, and cesarean delivery. Factors associated with decreased odds included lower gestational age and small for gestational age birth weight.

Conclusions: In California, active treatment rates at 23 weeks of gestation increased between 2011 and 2018, but rates at 22 weeks did not. At 22 and 23 weeks, rates increased during the latter part of the week. Several maternal and infant factors were associated with the likelihood of active treatment.

Keywords: intensive care; outcome assessment; premature infant; risk factors.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Birth Weight
  • Cesarean Section
  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Care*