Leiomyosarcoma: Current Clinical Management and Future Horizons

Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2022 Jul;31(3):527-546. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2022.03.011.


Leiomyosarcomas are soft tissue tumors that are derived from smooth muscle mainly in the pelvis and retroperitoneum. Percutaneous biopsy is paramount to confirm diagnosis. Imaging is necessary to complete clinical staging. Multimodal treatment should be directed by expert sarcoma multidisciplinary teams that see a critical volume of these rare tumors. Surgery is the mainstay of curative intent treatment; however due to its high metastatic progression, there may be a benefit for neoadjuvant systemic treatment. Adjuvant systemic treatment has no proven disease-free survival, and its main role is in the palliative setting to potentially prolong overall survival.

Keywords: Leiomyosarcoma; Metastasis; Retroperitoneum; Soft tissue sarcoma; Systemic treatment; Uterine sarcoma; Vascular origin.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Humans
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / diagnosis
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / pathology
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / therapy
  • Sarcoma* / surgery
  • Soft Tissue Neoplasms* / pathology