Discreet Values of Shock Index Pediatric Age-Adjusted (SIPA) to Predict Intervention in Children With Blunt Organ Injuries

J Surg Res. 2022 Nov:279:17-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2022.05.006. Epub 2022 Jun 15.


Introduction: Elevated shock index pediatric age-adjusted (SIPA) has been shown to be associated with the need for both blood transfusion and intervention in pediatric patients with blunt liver and spleen injuries (BLSI). SIPA has traditionally been used as a binary value, which can be classified as elevated or normal, and this study aimed to assess if discreet values above SIPA cutoffs are associated with an increased probability of blood transfusion and failure of nonoperative management (NOM) in bluntly injured children.

Materials and methods: Children aged 1-18 y with any BLSI admitted to a Level-1 pediatric trauma center between 2009 and 2020 were analyzed. Blood transfusion was defined as any transfusion within 24 h of arrival, and failure of NOM was defined as any abdominal operation or angioembolization procedure for hemorrhage control. The probabilities of receiving a blood transfusion or failure of NOM were calculated at different increments of 0.1.

Results: There were 493 patients included in the analysis. The odds of requiring blood transfusion increased by 1.67 (95% CI 1.49, 1.90) for each 0.1 unit increase of SIPA (P < 0.001). A similar trend was seen initially for the probability of failure of nonoperative management, but beyond a threshold, increasing values were not associated with failure of NOM. On subanalysis excluding patients with a head injury, increased 0.1 increments were associated with increased odds for both interventions.

Conclusions: Discreet values above age-related SIPA cutoffs are correlated with higher probabilities of blood transfusion in pediatric patients with BLSI and failure of NOM in those without head injury. The use of discreet values may provide clinicians with more granular information about which patients require increased resources upon presentation.

Keywords: Blunt liver injury; Blunt spleen injury; Pediatric trauma; Shock index pediatric-age adjusted (SIPA).

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Injuries* / complications
  • Child
  • Craniocerebral Trauma*
  • Humans
  • Injury Severity Score
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Shock*
  • Wounds, Nonpenetrating* / complications
  • Wounds, Nonpenetrating* / diagnosis
  • Wounds, Nonpenetrating* / therapy