A comprehensive molecular approach in fish allergy: Usefulness in daily clinical practice

Clin Chim Acta. 2022 Aug 1;533:104-108. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2022.06.010. Epub 2022 Jun 16.


Background and aims: Diagnosis of fish may represent an important challenge for the allergists. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of an in vitro multiplex assay using a comprehensive panel of fish allergens and the cross-reactivity patterns between different molecular components.

Methods: 56 subjects with fish allergy were enrolled. All patients underwent specific IgE measurement using the Allergy Explorer-Alex 2™ multiplex assay (Macroarray Diagnostics, Vienna, Austria) RESULTS: The single ß-parvalbumins Clu h 1, Cyp c 1, Gad m 1, Sal s 1, Sco s 1, Thu a 1 and Xyp g 1 scored positive in 75.0%, 67.8%, 62.5%, 80.3%,80.3%, 78.8% and 73,2% patients, respectively. 14.3% scored positive for the α-parvalbumin (Raj c-parvalbumin), and 16.1% for the aldolase + enolase (Gad m 2 + 3) components. 92.8% reacted to at least one ß-parvalbumin and 96.4% to at least one of the allergens tested. Overall sensitivity was higher than that obtained using commercial extracts of cod, salmon and tuna for skin prick test (75.8%) and IgE detection (92.3%).

Conclusions: The Alex 2 showed high diagnostic sensitivity and it might be used as an additional assay to investigate the cross-reactivity patterns between different molecular components, looking for potentially safe fish species.

Keywords: Aldolase; Enolase; Fish allergy; Molecular diagnosis; ß-parvalbumins.

MeSH terms

  • Allergens
  • Animals
  • Cross Reactions
  • Fishes
  • Food Hypersensitivity* / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin E
  • Parvalbumins*


  • Allergens
  • Parvalbumins
  • Immunoglobulin E