Diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI) harmonization is necessary for multi-site or multi-acquisition studies. Current statistical methods address the need to harmonize from one site to another, but do not simultaneously consider the use of multiple datasets which are comprised of multiple sites, acquisitions protocols, and age demographics. This work explores deep learning methods which can generalize across these variations through semi-supervised and unsupervised learning while also learning to estimate multi-shell data from single-shell data using the Multi-shell Diffusion MRI Harmonization Challenge (MUSHAC) and Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (BLSA) datasets. We compare disentanglement harmonization models, which seek to encode anatomy and acquisition in separate latent spaces, and a CycleGAN harmonization model, which uses generative adversarial networks (GAN) to perform style transfer between sites, to the baseline preprocessing and to SHORE interpolation. We find that the disentanglement models achieve superior performance in harmonizing all data while at the same transforming the input data to a single target space across several diffusion metrics (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, mean kurtosis, primary eigenvector).
Keywords: Deep learning; Diffusion weighted MRI; Harmonization; Semi-supervised learning.
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