Sex, Gender, and Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease

Semin Nephrol. 2022 Mar;42(2):197-207. doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2022.04.009.


This review on sex, gender, and cardiovascular diseases in chronic kidney disease attempts to summarize what we know and what we do not know about the effects of sex and gender on cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. We discuss and define the terminology of sex and gender, and the underlying physiology for differences observed. We explore how sex and gender affect specific cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, cardiovascular mortality, and pre-eclampsia. We conclude with a review of recent randomized controlled trials and highlight the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences in both sexes.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; gender; pre-eclampsia; sex.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / etiology
  • Coronary Artery Disease*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pre-Eclampsia*
  • Pregnancy
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications